Graduate-Entry
4-Year MD Program

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The Doctor of Medicine (MD) Program is accredited by the Commission for Academic Accreditation (CAA), Ministry of Education, United Arab Emirates. The outcome competencies of the program are benchmarked with internationally known competency frameworks including the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) and have been adapted to the cultural context of the Arabian Gulf region.

The graduate-entry Doctor of Medicine (MD) Program is a 4-year competency-based program with a total of 152 credits. This program is suitable for students who have completed a four-year bachelor’s degree and fulfills the admission criteria for the four-year MD program.

The program is organized in two inter-related phases, each of two years duration with critical points or “Gates” at the end of each phase. The eligibility of students’ progression to the next phase will be checked at the gates.

Each phase will have specific “Phase Learning Outcomes” which are milestones towards the Program Learning Outcomes:

  • Phase of‘Core Medical Sciences’ (Years 1 & 2)
  • Phase of ‘Transition to Practice’(Years 3 & 4)

After the successful completion of the Phase of “Transition to Practice” requirements, they graduate with a MD degree.

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The duration of the graduate-entry MD program is 4 years, and the curriculum is organized in an organ-system based sequence integrating biomedical sciences, clinical sciences, social/behavioral sciences and patient-care skills. The curriculum is designed to develop a culture of teamwork, scientific enquiry and lifelong learning in the students which are essential for the effective practice of medicine.

The pedagogy used in the MD program includes diverse teaching/learning methods to cater to different learning styles of a culturally diverse group of students.  More small-group and active learning strategies like Student-led Seminars (SLS), Problem-based Learning (PBL), Team-based Learning (TBL), Virtual-patient Learning (VPL) etc. are used. Early clinical exposure is the highlight of the MD program.

The curriculum is delivered in a number of different healthcare settings including ambulatory and inpatient care, primary health care, emergency, and community settings providing wide experience. Training in the state-of-the-art simulation set-up provides additional hands-on training during the pre-clinical years.

Assessments are of high standard and benchmarked internationally by students taking the International Foundation of Medicine (IFOM) Examination (Basic and Clinical Sciences) conducted by the National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME), USA.

Graduates are awarded the MD degree on successful completion of the 4-year program, attaining 152 credits and passing a comprehensive Exit Examination. The MD degree awarded by GMU is recognized by the Ministry of Health, UAE and all graduates are eligible to take the licensing exam in the country to be evaluated for independent practice.

Graduation requirements

The student will be commended for the award of the Doctor of Medicine (MD) program upon:

  • Being continuously enrolled in the program from admission to graduation
  • Having satisfied all conditions of his or her admission
  • Completing 152 credits of course work
  • Passing a Comprehensive Exit Exam with not less than 65%.

VISION

To pursue excellence in medical education, research and patient care to meet the evolving healthcare needs of the nation and the region.

MISSION

The Mission of the MD Program is to:

  • Attract the best students and provide a unique learning experience through quality medical education
  • Produce socially accountable competent physicians who will make a significant contribution to the health of the community through evidence-based healthcare
  • Prepare medical graduates to pursue postgraduate training in any specialty of their choice and integrate advances in research in the delivery of quality patient-care.
  • Attract best faculty who can contribute to the quality of medical education and research.

Core Medical Sciences Phase: Years 1 & 2

In this phase, we introduce the students to the core up-to-date knowledge for practice and its application to patients and population care. Clinical Skills are mainly acquired in Skills Labs with regular encounters with real patients. This phase is organized around integrated organ-system modules.

Problem-Based Learning (PBL) using high-fidelity AI based simulated patients constitutes the primary strategy of learning and teaching. Lectures will be offered as resource sessions using TBL and flipped classrooms. Basic medical sciences, clinical sciences, population health, ethics and professionalism are integrated within the problems. The subjects studied include clinical and applied aspects of Anatomy, Physiology, Biochemistry, Pharmacology, Pathology, Microbiology, Immunology and Genetics. In addition, the following courses: Clinical Skills, Community Medicine, Epidemiology, Biostatistics, Research Methodology, Family Health, Evidence-based Medicine, and Behavioral Sciences are integrated and coordinated within the organ-system units. In the year 2, students spend 6 weeks in an integrated multisystem course preparing them for patient care in the hospital setting.

End-Phase Exam: By the end of Year 2, the students should successfully complete the ‘Core Medical Sciences’Phase requirements in order to progress to ‘Transition to Practice’ Phase and complete the four-year MD program. The students will take an international benchmark exam (IFOM Basic Medical Sciences Exam).

Transition to Practice Phase: (Clerkships) “Workplace-Based Learning”: Years 3 & 4

In this Phase, Students will rotate in different clerkships in order to ensure better exposure to the work environment, patients, and interaction with other healthcare professionals.

In year 3, students undergo clerkship rotations of 8 weeks each in Medicine, Surgery, Obstetrics & Gynecology, Pediatrics, and ENT/Eye. In year 4, they go through four rotations of 8 weeks each in Medicine and subspecialties, Surgery and subspecialties. Family Medicine and Psychiatry, Emergency Medicine and Critical care, and another 8 weeks of elective training/research.

Exit Exam: At the end of this Phase, students should successfully complete the Phase requirements and provide convincing evidence related to the Program Learning Outcomes and achievement of competence. The IFOM Clinical Sciences will be considered as the international benchmark. The student will graduate with MD degree.

The graduates are awarded the Doctor of Medicine (MD) degree on successful completion of the 4-year program and passing the comprehensive exit examination.

Credit Equivalence: The credit equivalence of the 4-Year Doctor of Medicine Program is 152 credits.

 

Study Plan

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Admission Requirements for Graduate-entry 4-year MD program

  • The Applicant should possess a bachelor’s degree (Biomedical / Health / Life Sciences or equivalent) from an accredited college or university with:
    • Equivalency Certificate of the Baccalaureate degree from the Ministry of Education, UAE or Copy of WES Grading Evaluation Score Sheet
    • Cumulative GPA ­3.0 on a 4.0-point scale or equivalent on non-GPA grading systems
    • Core CGPA (Science courses) 3.0 on a 4.0-point scale or equivalent on non-GPA grading systems.
  • The Applicant must have proficiency in spoken and written English. The Applicant can fulfil the English proficiency requirement via the EmSAT or TOEFL or IELTS. TOEFL and IELTS test scores must be dated within two years of the year of enrolment.
    • EmSAT: Score of 1400 and above
    • TOEFL: Score of 90 on the iBT or higher
    • IELTS: Overall score 6.5 and higher with a score of no less than 6 on any individual band or module.
  • Courses taken during the undergraduate degree program should include elements of:
    • Chemistry and Biochemistry
    • Human Anatomy and Physiology
    • Microbiology, Immunology, and Basic Pathophysiology
    • Cell Biology, Genetics and Molecular Biology
    • Social, Behavioral Sciences and Public Health
    • Statistics and Logical Reasoning
  • Applicants will be required to pass the GMU Competency Assessment Test (GCAT) for the 4-year MD program which will include questions from the syllabus provided. [link]
  • Applicants who lack sufficient background in the above-mentioned subjects may register for the non-credit remedial courses offered by the University.
  • Preference shall be given to Applicant’s with Healthcare / Research / Community service experience.
  • Two Letters of Recommendation (LOR) from persons familiar with the Applicant’s academic aptitude and standing (Dean/Professor/Faculty) in the Bachelor program; one may be from a workplace.
  • All Applicants shall be subjected to an interview by the Admissions Committee to evaluate for cognitive and non-cognitive traits demonstrating their aptitude for the chosen area of study.
  • Applicants are required to apply on the admission portal with resume and a personal statement.
  • The decision of the Admission Committee shall be final and binding.

Date: Friday, October 21, 2022
Venue: GMU Testing Centre
Time:

  • Paper I: 9:00 – 11:00 am
    • 90 MCQs [Core Basic Sciences (MCQ 80) and Critical Analysis and Reasoning Skills (MCQ 10)]
  • Paper II: 2:00 – 4:00 pm
    • 90 MCQs [Foundations of Living Systems (MCQ 30) and Preclinical Sciences (MCQ 60)]

GCAT Blueprint

Sections GCAT Subject (No. of MCQs)
Foundations of Living Systems (MCQ 30)
  • Cell Biology & Molecular Biology (18)
  • Genetics (12)
Core Basic Sciences (MCQ 80)
  • Anatomy (30)
  • Physiology (30)
  • Biochemistry (20)
Preclinical Sciences (MCQ 60)
  • Microbiology (20)
  • Immunology (10)
  • General Pathology (15)
  • General Pharmacology (5)
  • Public Health (10)
Critical Analysis and Reasoning Skills (MCQ 10)
  • Biostatistics (5)
  • Research Methodology (5)

GMU Competency Assessment Test (GCAT) – Syllabus – 2022

Applicants will be required to pass the GCAT for admission into the 4-year Graduate Entry MD program. It will include questions from the fields listed below. There are four main sections of the GCAT syllabus 2022. The GCAT assesses a candidate’s knowledge of foundation courses taught during the Bachelor of Medical Sciences. A substantial number of questions are asked from each section. The purpose of this admission test is to assess candidates from different majors and select the best students that are eligible for the program.

Sections GCAT Subject
Foundations of Living Systems
  • Cell Biology
  • Molecular Biology
  • Genetics
Core Basic Sciences
  • Anatomy
  • Physiology
  • Biochemistry
Preclinical Sciences
  • Microbiology
  • Immunology
  • General Pathology
  • General Pharmacology
  • Public Health
Critical Analysis and Reasoning Skills
  • Biostatistics
  • Research Methodology

Section: Foundations of Living Systems

Cell Biology and Genetics
Topic Content area
Eukaryotic cell Structure and function of cell organelles
Cell diversity
Cell cycle and regulation Stages of cell cycle
Cell cycle check points
Mitosis and their stages
Meiosis and their stages
Consequences of Meiosis
Plasma Membrane Membrane structure: Components and Function
Transport across plasma membrane
Membrane Potential
Karyotyping and Chromosomal Abnormalities Morphology of Chromosomes
Numerical abnormalities of chromosomes with examples
Structural abnormalities of chromosomes with examples
Mendelian inheritance Mendelian principles
Autosomal dominant inheritance
Autosomal recessive inheritance
Sex linked inheritance
Population Genetics Gene pool
Gene frequency
Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium
Basics of Cancer genetics Fragile sites in humans
Chromosomal instability syndromes
Cytogenetic mechanisms in solid tumors
Diagnostic and prognostic applications
Specialized and evolving FISH technology
Complex diseases and genetic services Polygenic inheritance
Multifactorial inheritance
Number of Multiple-Choice Questions: 18
Sample Questions

1.     Marked microsatellite instability is a feature of:
A.     familial adenomatous polyposis.
B.     hereditary non-polyposis colon cancer (HNPCC).
C.     multiple endocrine adenomatosis type 2.
D.     neurofibromatosis 1

References:  Medical Genetics. Lynn B. Jorde PhD, John C. Carey MD, MPH and Michael J. Bamshad MD. Medical Genetics

 

Molecular Biology
Topic Content area
DNA structure and function Three models of DNA structure
Chargaff’s rules
Types of DNA
Primary, secondary, and tertiary structure of DNA
RNA structure and types Secondary and tertiary structure of RNA
Kinetics of RNA folding
RNA catalysis and Ribozymes
Organization of the genome Eukaryotic genome chromatin, heterochromatin, euchromatin, gene, genome, nucleosome, histones, telomeres, repetitive and non-repetitive sequences
DNA Replication Nuclear DNA replication in eukaryotic cells
Replication of organelle DNA
Rolling circle replication
Telomere maintenance
DNA Repair and Recombination Types of mutations and their phenotypic consequences
Classes of DNA damage and repair mechanisms
Transcription in bacteria Transcription
Operons
Transcription regulators
Control of gene expression by RNA
Transcription in Eukaryotes Transcriptional regulation
Protein-coding gene regulatory elements
Basal transcription machinery and Transcription factors
Epigenetics and monoallelic gene expression Epigenetic markers
Genomic Imprinting
X-chromosome inactivation
Phenotypic consequences of transposable elements
Epigenetic control of the transposable elements
RNA processing, and modifications Processing of different types of RNA
Alternative splicing, RNA editing, miRNA, nuclear exosomes
Cytoplasmic RNA turnover
Protein biosynthesis and modifications Structure of ribosomes
Role of nucleolus
Translation process and modifications
Genome Analysis DNA polymorphism
Minisatellite analysis
Polymerase Chain Reaction based analysis
Short tandem repeat analysis
Mitochondrial DNA analysis
Y chromosome analysis
Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis
Number of Multiple-Choice Questions: 12
Sample Questions

1.     A DNA molecule in which both strands have radioactive thymidine is permitted to replicate in an environment that contains non-radioactive thymidine. What is the right number of DNA molecules which possess some radioactive thymidine post three duplications?
A.     One such molecule
B.     Two such molecules
C.     Four such molecules
D.     Eight such molecules

References: David P Clark, Nanette J Pazdernik, Michelle R McGehee Molecular Biology. 3rd ed. 2019. ISBN: 978-0-12-813288-3

Section: Core Basic Sciences

Anatomy
Topic Content area
General Anatomy, Histology and Embryology General Anatomy: Anatomical Terminologies, Skeletal system, joints, Muscular system
General Embryology: Gametogenesis, 1st -3rd week of development, Placenta
General Histology: Cell, tissues, and lymphoid organs
Upper and Lower extremities Upper limb: Bones and joints of the Upper limb,
Pectoral region, Boundaries and contents of Axilla, Arm, forearm, and Hand (muscle attachments, blood vessels and nerve supply)
Lower Limb: Bones, joints of the lower limb
Femoral triangle, gluteal region, thigh, leg, and feet (Muscle attachments, blood vessels and nerve supply)
Boundaries and contents of popliteal fossa
Thorax, Abdomen and Pelvis Gross Anatomy of:
Heart, Lungs, Aorta, Trachea, Esophagus, Lymphatic duct, and Diaphragm
Peritoneum, Abdominal wall, Gastrointestinal tract, Accessory digestive organs, Extra hepatic biliary apparatus
Urinary system
Male and female reproductive system
Head Neck and Brain Gross Anatomy of:
Scalp, Face, Oral cavity, Salivary glands, Infratemporal fossa, Palate, Eyeball, Extraocular muscles, Nasal cavity, Ear, Neck Triangles, Pharynx, Larynx.
Spinal Cord, Brainstem, Dural Folds and sinuses, Cerebrum, Cerebellum, Ventricles, Cranial Nerves
Number of Multiple-Choice Questions: 30
Sample Questions

1.     The long thoracic nerve innervates which muscle?
A.     Anterior scalene
B.     Middle scalene
C.     Serratus anterior
D.     Teres major
2.     The cerebrospinal fluid from the third ventricle is drained to the fourth ventricle through a cavity located within the midbrain. Identify the cavity.
A.     Foramen of Monro
B.     Cerebral aqueduct
C.     Foramen of Magendie
D.     Foramen of Luschka
3.     A needle is approached at the level of disc between L4 and L5 to reach the epidural space. Mention the anatomical structure it may come across.
A.     L4 segment of spinal cord
B.     L5 segment of spinal cord
C.     Conus medullaris
D.     Cauda equina

References:

  1. Histology: Leslie P. Gartner, Textbook of Histology,5th edition-2021, ISBN 978-0-323-67272-6
  2. Embryology: The Developing Human, Keith Moore T. V. N. Persaud Mark Torchia. 11th edition. Elsevier Saunders; 2020. ISBN- 978-0-323-60849-7
  3. Gross Anatomy: John T. Hansen, Netter’s Clinical Anatomy,4th Edition-2019, ISBN 978-0-323-53188-7

 

Physiology
Topic Content area
Functional organization of human body Levels of organization in the human body
Cellular physiology: an overview of cell structure & function
Regulation of Body Fluid Compartments: Extracellular and Intracellular Fluids
Homeostasis The concept of homeostasis
The difference between negative & positive feedback control systems
Biophysics Structure and functions of the plasma membrane
Transport of Substances Through Cell Membranes
Electrical property of cell membrane and the different membrane potentials
Basic biophysical principles controlling the circulatory and the respiratory systems
Blood physiology Blood component
Plasma constituent
Red blood corpuscles
Blood groups and blood transfusion
White blood cells function & immunity
Platelet’s function
Hemostasis & coagulation pathways
Nerve Neuronal resting membrane potential
Action potential and its ionic basis
Muscle Mechanism of skeletal muscle contraction
Mechanics of skeletal muscle contraction
Ionic basis slow and fast response action potentials of the cardiac muscle
Excitation contraction coupling of the cardiac muscle
Molecular mechanism of the smooth muscle fiber contraction
Cardiovascular system Cardiac muscle properties, Rhythmicity, Excitability, Conductivity, and Contractility
Basic concepts of ECG (waves and interval)
Cardiac output & Arterial blood pressure
Respiratory system Mechanics of breathing
Surfactant, and surface tension
Diffusion and transport of Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide
Gastrointestinal tract Gastric secretion
Digestion and absorption of carbohydrate, Fat, and protein
Function of the liver and the role of bile in fat digestion and absorption
GIT Motility and defecation
Renal system Glomerular filtration rate
Functions of the nephron
Electrolyte balance (sodium & potassium balance)
Acid base balance
Hormones Functions of pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal, pancreatic, and reproductive hormones
Synapse, Neurotransmitters, Autonomic nervous system General design of the nervous system, Neurons, Nerve Impulse Conduction, Synapse, Neurotransmitter
Organization and role of sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system
Somatic sensation and Motor system Tactile, position sense, pain, and thermal sensation,
Reflexes, cortical and brain stem control of motor functions
Role of cerebellum and basal ganglia
Functions of cerebral cortex Functions of specific cortical areas, thoughts, consciousness
Limbic system and learning and memory
Sleep, and brain waves
Optics and Neurophysiology of Vision Physical principles of optics, Accommodation, Visual acuity
Receptor and neural function of Retina
Visual pathway, organization, and function of visual cortex
Sense of hearing Tympanic membrane and ossicular system, Function of Cochlea and organ of Corti
Determination of sound frequency
Auditory nervous pathway
The Chemical Senses: Taste and Smell Functions of taste buds and Neural pathway of sense of taste
Mechanism of olfactory cells
Transmission of smell signal into central nervous system
Number of Multiple-Choice Questions: 30
Sample Questions

1.     The function of the RBCs:
A.     Defensive functions.
B.     Blood clotting.
C.     Transport oxygen
D.     Engulf bacteria
2.     T wave in ECG represents
A.     Ventricular depolarization
B.     Atrial repolarization
C.     Atrial depolarization
D.     Ventricular repolarization
3.     What is the function of gastric HCl?
A.     Absorption of vitamin B12
B.     Activation of pepsinogen
C.     Protects gastric mucosa
D.     Digestion of fat

Reference: John E. Hall and Michael E. Hall. Textbook of Medical Physiology. 14th ed. Elsevier. 2021. ISBN: 978-0-323-597128.

 

Biochemistry
Topic Content area
Chemistry Amino acids and proteins
Carbohydrates
Lipids
Nucleic acids
Plasma proteins
Hemoglobin and myoglobin
Enzymes Classification
Kinetics
Regulation
Nutrition Vitamins: Biochemical role
Minerals: Biochemical role
Energy Balance
Role of Macronutrients
Malnutrition
Recommended dietary goals
Nutrition in vulnerable groups
Nutritional disorders
Metabolism Intermediary metabolism: Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex, Krebs Cycle, Electron Transport Chain
Carbohydrate metabolism: Digestion and absorption, Glycolysis, Gluconeogenesis, HMP, Fructose and Galactose and associated disorders
Lipid metabolism: Digestion and absorption, Fatty acid, TAG, Ketone bodies, Cholesterol, Lipoproteins, Eicosanoids, and associated disorders
Protein metabolism: Digestion and absorption, Urea cycle, Carbon skeleton, aromatic amino acids, and associated disorders
Nucleotide Metabolism: Purine and Pyrimidine Metabolism and associated disorders
Heme Metabolism
Metabolic integration
Number of Multiple-Choice Questions: 20
Sample Questions

1.     Antioxidants play important role in the prevention of free radical formation and helps in reducing damages to biomolecules. The group of vitamins possessing antioxidant activity are:
A.     Tocopherol, Carotenoids and Ascorbic acid
B.     Thiamine, Niacin and Riboflavin
C.     Pyridoxine, Folic acid and Cobalamin
D.     Biotin, Pantothenic acid and Phytonadione
2.     Urea concentration is estimated in the blood to evaluate the kidney function. The main source of urea in the body is:
A.     Amino group derived from amino acids
B.     Intermediates of TCA cycle
C.     Catabolic products of purine nucleotides
D.     Carbon skeleton of non-essential amino acids

References:

  1. Ferrier DR. Lippincott’s Illustrated Reviews: Biochemistry, 7th Edition. Wolters Kluwer; 2017.
  2. Geissler C and Powers H (Eds). Human Nutrition. 13th ed. Oxford University Press; 2017.  ISBN 978-0-19-876802-9

Section: Preclinical Sciences

Immunology
Topic Content area
Cells of the immune system Hematopoietic stem cells
Myeloid & lymphoid progenitors
Lymphocytes, neutrophils, basophils, mast cells, eosinophils, natural killer cells, macrophagic cells, and follicular dendritic cells
Organs & Tissues of the immune system Structure & functions of Primary lymphoid organs – Thymus & Bone marrow
Structure & functions of secondary lymphoid organs – Spleen & lymph nodes
Mucosal associated, gut associated and bronchial associated lymphoid tissues (MALTs, GALTs & BALTs)
Innate (Non-specific) immune response Role of host and cell factors of innate immunity
Anatomical barriers to infections
Types of macrophages
NK cells & their regulation
Inflammatory responses
Evasion of innate immune response
Adaptive (Specific) immune response (Humoral/antibody mediated immunity) Humoral/antibody mediated immune response
Antigenicity/ immunogenicity
Antigen presentation
Role of Major histocompatibility complex (MHC)
Immunoglobulins: Structure, function and classification
Adaptive (Specific) immune response (Cell mediated immunity) Cell mediated immune response
Receptors and Signaling: Cytokines and Chemokines
Helper T cell mediated immune response to extracellular antigenic stimulus
Cytotoxic T cell mediated immune response to intracellular antigenic stimulus
Antigen – antibody reactions Different types of Antigens – Antibody interactions
Role of complement system (Classical & Alternative pathway) during antigen-antibody reaction
Immunoprophylaxis Active & Passive immunoprophylaxis
Hypersensitivity reactions Type I Hypersensitivity Reaction
Antibody-Mediated (Type II) Hypersensitivity Reaction
Immune Complex-Mediated (Type III) Hypersensitivity
Delayed-Type (Type IV) Hypersensitivity (DTH)
Immunohematology & Transplantation Immunology Blood grouping antigens
Rh incompatibility
Hemolytic disease
Allograft and HLA typing
Immunology response against transplant
Autoimmune diseases Organ and systemic specific autoimmune reactions
Number of Multiple-Choice Questions: 10
Sample Questions

1.     The spleen responds to_________ antigen and the lymph nodes respond to_______ antigens for presentation to __________.
A.     Lymph-borne; Blood borne; B lymphocytes
B.     Tissue space; respiratory; Dendritic cells
C.     Blood borne; Lymph borne; Natural killer cells
D.     Blood borne; Lymph borne; T lymphocytes
2.     The Major serum Immunoglobulin that constitutes 75% of total Immunoglobulin’s (Ig) and represent the major antibody of secondary response is:
A.     IgD
B.     IgM
C.     IgE
D.     IgG

Reference: Levinson W. Review of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, 14th Edition. McGraw Hills; 2016. ISBN-978-0-07-184574-8.

 

Microbiology
Topic Content area
History of Microbiology
Bacterial structure and functions
Contributions by eminent scientists, Koch’s postulates
Classification of microorganisms and salient features
Differences between prokaryotes and eukaryotes
Morphology
Bacterial growth
Bacterial Genetics
Growth cycle, generation time, methods for measuring microbial growth
Influence of environmental factors on growth of micro-organisms in-vitro
Structure of DNA, Replication, Transcription and Translation
Mechanisms of bacterial gene transfer
Process of genetic variation
Host Parasite relationship

Medically important bacteria-GPC (Staphylococci)

Exotoxins & endotoxins
Different types of infections
Pathogenicity & virulence
Portals of entry
Factors contributing to pathogenicity
Commensal and parasitic relationships
Classification, morphological and physiologic characteristics, pathogenesis, lab tests of Staphylococci
Medically important bacteria-GPC (Streptococci)
Pathogenic bacteria (GNC)
Streptococci: Morphology and Classification, Virulence factors, Diseases, Lab diagnosis, Collection of specimens, Transportation and Biochemical tests for identification and Treatment
Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Neisseria meningitidis: Morphological and cultural characteristics, antigenic properties, pathogenesis, laboratory diagnosis and treatment
Pathogenic bacteria GNBs (E. coli, Proteus, Klebsiella, Haffnia, Serratia, Vibrio, Campylobacter, Helicobacter, Pseudomonas) Gram-negative bacilli (E. coli, Proteus, Klebsiella, Haffnia, Serratia, Vibrio, Campylobacter, Helicobacter, Pseudomonas):
Epidemiology, pathogenesis & diagnosis of infections, Morphology, cultural characteristics, serological classification, and laboratory diagnosis
Pathogenic bacteria GNBs (Legionella, Hemophilus, Bordetella, Salmonella, Shigella) Gram-negative bacilli (Legionella, Hemophilus, Bordetella, Salmonella, Shigella):
Medically important species, morphology, pathogenesis, laboratory diagnosis, cultural characteristics, serological classification, treatment, and prevention
Pathogenic bacteria (Spirochetes)
Pathogenic bacteria GPBs I (Corynebacterium, Listeria, Bacillus)
Medically important Spirochetes: Morphological and physiological characteristics, pathogenesis, and laboratory diagnosis.
Medically important Gram-positive bacilli: Morphological and physiological characteristics, pathogenesis, and laboratory diagnosis
Pathogenic bacteria – GPB   II (Clostridia)
Pathogenic bacteria – GPB    III (Actinomycetes, Nocardia)
Clostridia: Medically important species, morphology, cultural characteristics, pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, complications & Lab diagnosis.
Actinomycetes, Nocardia: Medically important species, morphology, cultural characteristics, pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, complications & Lab diagnosis
Mycobacteria
Miscellaneous bacteria (Obligate intracellular parasites, Cell wall deficient bacteria, Zoonotic bacteria)
Mycobacteria: Medically important species, morphology, cultural characteristics, pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, complications & Lab diagnosis
Chlamydia and Rickettsiae: Morphological, cultural, pathological and clinical characteristics and Lab diagnosis
Brucella, Francisella, Yersinia, Pasteurella and Bartonella: Morphological, cultural, pathological and clinical characteristics and Lab diagnosis
Viruses, fungi and parasites General properties of viruses & Laboratory Diagnosis
DNA & RNA viruses and their pathogenicity
Classification of Fungi & Laboratory Diagnosis
Morphological, cultural and clinical manifestations of fungi causing Opportunistic, Superficial, Subcutaneous and Systemic infections
Classification of Parasites & Laboratory Diagnosis
Morphological, cultural and clinical manifestations of Protozoans and Helminths: Trematodes & Cestodes, Nematodes
Number of Multiple-Choice Questions: 20
Sample Questions

1.     The organism in which the adult or sexually mature stage of the parasite lives is known as:
A.     Intermediate host.
B.     Accidental host.
C.     Reservoir host.
D.     Definitive host.
2.     Gram stain of an organism isolated from a wound of a patient with lock jaw revealed gram positive bacilli with terminal spores giving it a tennis-racket appearance. The most probable organism is
A.     Clostridium perfringens
B.     Clostridium difficle
C.     Clostridium septicum
D.     Clostridium tetani

References:

  1. Murray PR, Rosenthal KS, Pfaller MA. Medical Microbiology. 8th ed. Elsevier Ltd; 2016. ISBN: 978-0-323-29956-5.
  2. Barer MR, Irving W, Swann  A, Perera  N. Medical Microbiology: A Guide to Microbial Infections. 19th Ed. Elsevier Ltd; 2018, ISBN: 978-0-7020-7200-0.

 

General Pathology
Topic Content area
Cell injury & adaptations Overview of cell injury & cell death
Biochemical mechanisms of cell injury
Adaptations of cellular growth and differentiation
Reversible and irreversible cell injury Morphologic alterations in cell injury:
Reversible cell injury
Irreversible cell injury, Necrosis
Apoptosis, Necroptosis Autophagy
Intracellular accumulations, calcification, and cellular aging Clinicopathologic Correlations: Selected Examples of Cell Injury and Necrosis
Intracellular accumulations: lipids, proteins, pigments, glycogen
Pathologic calcification: dystrophic and metastatic
Morphological changes and mechanisms of cellular aging
Inflammation & Repair Acute inflammation, classical signs & vascular changes
Cellular events
Phagocytosis
Leukocyte-induced tissue injury
Mediators of Inflammation
Morphologic Patterns of Acute Inflammation
Outcomes of acute inflammation & systemic effects of inflammation
Chronic Inflammation
Granulomatous inflammation.
Overview of tissue repair
Examples of Tissue Repair and Fibrosis
Hemodynamic Disorders Edema and Effusions
Hemorrhagic Disorders
Hyperemia and congestion
Thrombosis
Embolism
Infarction
Neoplasia Neoplasia: Classification
Characteristics of benign and malignant neoplasms
Molecular basis of cancer
Carcinogens
Clinical features of Tumors
Grading and Staging
Laboratory diagnosis of the tumor
Environmental and Nutritional Diseases Abrasion, contusion, laceration, burns, heat cramps, heat stroke, heat exhaustion, frost bite,
Injuries produced by excess heat and excess cold
Injuries to organ systems associated with exposure to ionizing radiation
Beriberi, pellagra, rickets, osteomalacia, scurvy, night blindness
Diseases due to deficiency of vitamins
Marasmus, kwashiorkor, anorexia nervosa, bulimia, obesity
Pathogenesis of obesity
Diseases that are associated with obesity
Number of Multiple-Choice Questions: 15
Sample Questions

1.     The action of putrefactive bacteria on necrotic tissue results in:
A.     Coagulation
B.     Infarction
C.     Gangrene
D.     Embolism

Reference: Kumar V, Abbas AK, Aster JC. Robbins & Cotran Pathologic Basis of Disease. 10th ed. Elsevier; 2021. ISBN: 978-0-323-53113-9.

 

General Pharmacology
Topic Content area
General Pharmacology Routes of administration of drugs
General principles of Pharmacokinetics
General principles of Pharmacodynamics
Adverse drug reactions
Number of Multiple-Choice Questions: 5
Sample Questions

1.     A 20-year-old female patient is brought to the emergency department due to drug overdose. Which of the following routes of administration is the most desirable for administering the antidote for the drug overdose?
A.     Subcutaneous
B.     Transdermal
C.     Oral
D.     Intravenous
2.     A drug with a half-life of 10 hours is administered by continuous intravenous infusion. Which of the following best approximates the time for the drug to reach steady state?
A.     20 hours
B.     33 hours
C.     40 hours
D.     60 hours

Reference: Lippincott Illustrated Reviews, Pharmacology 6th Edition, by Karen Whalen

 

Public Health
Topics Content
Concepts of health & well-being Definition of health according to WHO
Biomedical, Ecological, Psychosocial, and Holistic concept of health
Standard of living, level of living, Quality of Life, Physical Quality of life index and Human development index.
Various factors affecting health
Role of external and internal environment in disease causation
Indicators of health
Concept of causation and Natural history of disease Definition of Natural history of disease
Ice-berg phenomenon of disease
Pre-pathogenesis and Pathogenesis in the natural history of disease
Natural history of disease in infectious and non-infectious disease
Measures of morbidity and mortality Incidence rate
Prevalence rate
Attack rate
Mortality rates
Case fatality rates
Proportionate mortality rate
Compare mortality in different population
Impact of interventions in a community
Sources of infection
Reservoir of infection
Epidemiological triad
Modes of transmission
Immunity
Concept of Prevention Disease monitoring
Disease surveillance
Types and role of surveillance system in disease prevention
Definition of prevention
Four levels of prevention
Modes of intervention
Screening of diseases
Importance of screening
Types of screening
Criteria for starting screening program
Assessment of screening
Infectious and Non-Communicable Various terminologies used in infectious and non-infectious diseases
Conceptual Basis for Prevention and Control of infectious and Non-communicable Diseases.
Investigation of an epidemic
Environmental and occupational health Environment, environmental health, environmental hazards, environmental justice, environmental sustainability, eco-friendliness
Physical environment Water, Air pollution, heat exposure, noise pollution
Number of Multiple-Choice Questions: 10
Sample Questions

1.     The role of social, environmental, mental and cultural factors on health is best described in
A.     Holistic concept
B.     Psychological concept
C.     Biomedical concept
D.     Ecological concept
2.     Variable that helps to measure changes in a health situation directly or indirectly and to assess the extent to which the objectives and targets of a program are being achieved
A.     Determinants of Health
B.     Indicators of health
C.     Health disparity
D.     Concepts of Health

References: Park K. Park’s textbook of preventive & social medicine. Banarsidas Bhanot publishers 25th ed. (2019). ISBN-13: 978-9382219156.

Section: Critical Analysis and Reasoning Skills

Biostatistics
Topic Content area
Variables Type of Variables
Descriptive Statistics Measures of central tendency and dispersion
Inferential Statistics Parametric and Non-parametric tests
Probability Probability and normal distribution
Correlation and regression test Linear correlation
Linear regression
Number of Multiple-Choice Questions: 5
Sample Questions

1.     The wealth index of the respondents was categorized as “Rich”, “Medium” and “Poor”. This is an example of which type of variable or data?
A.     Nominal
B.     Ordinal*
C.     Interval
D.     Ratio
2.     Which among the following is NOT a Parametric test?
A.     ANOVA
B.     Z-test
C.     Spearman’s rank correlation*
D.     Paired-T test

References: Daniel WW. Biostatistics: A Foundation for Analysis in the Health Sciences, 11th Edition. John Wiley & Sons Inc.; 2013. ISBN-13: 978-1119496700

 

Research Methodology
Topic Content area
Study design Primary, secondary and tertiary research
Qualitative and quantitative research
Population, sample and sampling techniques Population
Sample Size
Sampling techniques
Data Collection Tools Tools for data collection
Questionnaire; checklist; interview
Type of questions
Research protocol Component of research proposal
Validity and Precision Validity, precision and accuracy
Types of validity
Internal and external validity
Factors that are threats to precision
Strategies to enhance precision
Factors that are threats to accuracy
Strategies to enhance accuracy
Ethics in Biomedical Research Ethics and Bioethics
Informed consent
Conflict of interest
Vulnerable groups
Helsinki Declaration
Researchers’ freedom& responsibilities
Number of Multiple-Choice Questions: 5
Sample Questions

1.     In a study, 120 women with endometrial cancer and 120 women with no apparent disease were contacted and asked whether they had ever used estrogen. Each woman with cancer was matched by age, race, weight, and parity to a woman without disease. What kind of study design is this?
A.     Cohort study
B.     Case-control study
C.     Cross-sectional study
D.     Experimental study

References:

  1. Jacobsen, Kathryn H. Introduction to Health Research Methods: A Practical Guide. 3rd Edition. Burlington, MA.: Jones & Bartlett Learning, 2021. ISBN-13: 978-1284197563
  2. Hully SB, Cummings SR, Browner WS, Grady DG, Newman TB. Designing Clinical Research, 4th ed. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Wolters Klumer; 2013; ISBN 978-1608318049.

Upon graduation, the medical graduates can pursue further career in the field of clinical practice, research or academia. All graduates are eligible to take the licensing exam in the country to be evaluated for independent practice. Medical graduates can work as doctors in hospitals, medical institutions, private clinics, research centres, medical industry and insurance. Medical graduates can specialize in a variety of biomedical or clinical medical professions after completing a period of postgraduate training. Graduates interested in research and academia can pursue a PhD.